Legumes like beans and peas can take nitrogen from the air and put it into the soil, where plants can use it as fertilizer. Inoculants make sure that the right bacteria is there to do this.
Regular garden beans like warm soil. Plant when soil has warmed (70 degrees optimum, 60 minimum). Some specialty beans, such as favas, can grow in cool soil. Follow package instructions. Average garden soil is fine, not too acid--pH 6.0 or more. Rotate locations.
Use over-mature green beans as "shelly beans". Take them out of the pod and cook for 1/2 hour with a bit of water, oil, and seasonings.
Cut whole plants when they are perfectly dry (seeds hard when bitten) or when heavy rain threatens, whichever comes first. Hang in a covered place to finish drying, if needed. Dry plants can be piled on a tarp and walked on or beaten with sticks to extract beans, then winnowed. For smaller crops you may want to just pick the dry pods and shell them by rubbing with gloved hands as time permits. Spread on open trays or boxes until totally dry. Once completely dry, it helps to freeze them for a couple of days to kill any pests, then store. Before storage, make sure that beans are so dry that they shatter when hit by a hammer. Moisture will cause mold.