Garlic requires no extraordinary "special care". You plant it in the fall (October, November) and harvest in late spring-early summer. Planting instructions below.
HARDNECK varieties of garlic
are the more dramatic with fewer but much larger cloves. They have less of an outer bulb wrapper which makes them more sensitive and reduces their shelf life. As they grow they produce a stalk that coils from the top called a "scape" or garlic flower. Scapes can be harvested and used in cooking on their own before the garlic itself is actually harvested. They are very pungent and a little goes a long way.
are those most commonly found in supermarkets and have the botanical name of allium sativum var. sativum. The reason that you would see these varieties more frequently is that they have a much longer shelf life than the hardneck varieties, they are easier to grow and the beautiful garlic braids are made out of these varieties. You can recognize the softneck varieties by the papery white skin and the abundance of cloves, often forming several layers around the central core. Generally softnecks grow better in the Southern United States than hardnecks.
If you find yourself in a supermarket and are curious about whether the garlic you see is a hardneck or softneck variety, feel the top of the whole head. If there is no hard stick in the center you have a softneck variety.
Each variety has its own flavor and cloves from the same head, planted in different places can taste markedly different.
Plant it in full sun. Your soil should be worked/tilled - the finer the
better, but it doesn't have to be perfect! The winter will dissolve your
clods eventually - I've seen great crops come from cloddy soils with
plenty of vegetative "trash" present at planting (like after a corn
crop). Don't plant in the same ground you grew garlic in last year.
First, break (split) your planting bulbs up into individual cloves being
careful not to bruise them by squishing or breaking the skins - don't
let a lot of time go by before you actually plant the cloves - a day or
two at most. Cull (and keep for eating) any cloves that are very small
or damaged. Very important rule: BIG CLOVES MAKE BIG GARLIC!
Insert the cloves into the ground - don't just jam them in!... use your
fingers to protect the clove as you "place" it at a depth where it will
be covered by about 2 inches of dirt when finished. Pat down the soil on
top. Plant the cloves 4 inches apart. Top-dress with a high-nitrogen fertilizer in March or April, when the tops are growing tall and days are warming. That is when bulb development happens.